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Most serious fungal infections affect the lung, and fungal allergy is also common. The fungal infections with the highest frequency in non-immunocompromised patients include:

>> Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (usually asthmatic or cystic fibrosis)

>> Severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS)

>> Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (often following TB)

>> Coccidioidomycosis

>> Histoplasmosis - disseminated

>> Histoplasmosis - acute pulmonary

>> Histoplasmosis - chronic cavitary pulmonary

Uncommon infections include:

>> Blastomycosis

>> Paracoccidioidomycosis

>> Cryptococcal pneumonia

>> Community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia

>> Aspergillus bronchitis

>> Occupational lung disease caused by fungi

>> Candidaemia in context of indwelling IV access devices, typically in cystic fibrosis patients, or during the treatment of severe pulmonary tuberculosis

In immunocompromised patients, including HIV/AIDS, transplant, cancer or leukaemia, corticosteroid-treated or anti-TNF treatments patients, many opportunistic infections occur including:

>>  Invasive aspergillosis

>>  Pneumocystis pneumonia

>>  Pulmonary mucormycosis

>>  Coccidioidomycosis

>> Histoplasmosis - disseminated

>> Histoplasmosis - acute pulmonary

>> Histoplasmosis - chronic cavitary pulmonary

>>  Blastomycosis

>>  Paracoccidioidomycosis

>>  Candida pneumonia (rare and best documented by biopsy) 

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